Recopilación: Segmentación de redes

      Durante unas semanas hemos visto poco a poco como segmentar nuestra infraestructura de red, ahora, vamos a ver un resumen donde os dejare los enlaces al resto de artículos necesarios para poder llevar a cabo todo el proceso completo.

     Recordemos que la finalidad de la segmentación de una infraestructura de red son muchas:

  • Reducción de dominios de broadcast.
  • Control de accesos.
  • Localización de servicios en segmentos específicos de la red.
  • Aplicación de políticas de red con NPS y NAP.

      Para segmentar la infraestructura hacemos uso de vlans, de manera que podemos segmentar nuestra red física a nivel lógico, generando diferentes segmentos de red, decidiendo que dispositivos finales pertenecen a cada segmento.

      Los pasos que seguimos, para pasar de una red plana con un solo segmento de red a una red segmentada, fueron los siguientes:

  • Dado que para asignar direccionamiento en redes extensas hacemos uso de servidores dhcp, los clientes hacen uso de broadcast para descubrir este tipo de servidores, y teniendo en cuenta que una vez segmentada nuestra red, los broadcast serán contenidos en cada segmento sin pasar a otro. Necesitamos un mecanismo para que nuestro dhcp sea capaz de recibir las peticiones de todos los clientes sea cual sea el segmento de red en el que se encuentren, para ello hacemos uso de un relay de dhcp.

DHCP Relay en Windows Server 2012 R2

  • Una vez somos capaces de direccionar las peticiones a nuestro servidor dhcp, debemos contar con un ámbito para cada segmento de red, siendo así el servidor capaz de responder a los clientes con un direccionamiento específico para el segmento de red en el que se encuentre.

Configurar DHCP por VLAN

  • De esta manera los clientes podrán solicitar una configuración de red válida para su segmento de red, que les será aplicada correctamente de manera automática.

Segmentación de redes: Configuración de dispositivos de red I de III

  • Una vez disponemos del método para la configuración de los clientes, debemos empezar la segmentación propiamente dicha generando los segmentos de red mediante vlans en nuestros dispositivos de red, configurando la comunicación entre estos para que sean capaces de reenviar el tráfico correctamente, a los clientes y entre ellos mismos.

Segmentación de redes: Configuración de dispositivos de red II de III

  • Por último, debemos configurar nuestro router o switch capa 3 para que sea capaz de reenviar el tráfico fuera de nuestra infraestructura hacia nuestro ISP, así como entre los diferentes segmentos de red.

Segmentación de redes: Configuración de dispositivos de red III de III

      También mencionar, que una vez segmentada la red, debéis tener en cuenta que es muy posible que ciertos servicios tengan que hacer uso del Relay, por ejemplo los servicios de despliegue de Windows (WDS) y los que trabajen con él, como MDT. Ya que para iniciar el despliegue de una imagen WIM o la captura de esta necesitamos que el broadcast que emite el cliente durante el arranque PXE tiene que llegar también a nuestro servidor WDS. Nada complicado, además de poder hacer uso de Windows Server, los dispositivos de red con funcionalidades de capa 3 suelen venir con la funcionalidad de generar Realy de diferentes maneras, por lo que esto no debe suponer ningún problema.

      Como siempre espero os sea útil la información, para cualquier duda, consulta etcétera podéis contactar conmigo. No olvidéis compartir el contenido si os parece interesante y apuntaros al RSS para recibir las últimas actualizaciones. Nos vemos pronto.

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